Issue # 130 _ December 2006
- The pathways of change
- The understanding that the emission of greenhouse effect gases is responsible for global warming is already hegemonic. Now countries are preparing themselves to confront scenarios until recently considered catastrophic. The COP 12 Meeting, in Nairobi, approved the creation of a fund to finance the adaptation of more vulnerable countries. In Brazil, the first regional climatic model indicates that the country will be subject to more severe droughts and floods over the next few decades. Pesquisa FAPESP shows in the following article how countries are mobilizing in order to confront the changes and the results of the first Brazilian climatic model. By Fabrício Marques and Claudia Izique
Space photography page The China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellites (CBERS), versions 3 and 4, developed in cooperation with China, are going to go up into space with two of the four imaging cameras designed and constructed exclusively in Brazil. One of them, the Multi-Spectral Camera, in the middle of this year already passed the first tests at the National Institute for Space Research (INPE).
Developed by Opto Eletrônica, a technology-based company from the city of São Carlos, São Paulo, the new camera generates images in four bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, from blue to near infrared. With a resolution of 20 meters, it is intended for environmental monitoring and management of natural resources. Its visual field, the strip of ground visualized by the camera, is 120 kilometers in width. “It is the first camera with these characteristics entirely developed and produced in Brazil”, claims Mario Luiz Selingardi, and engineer from INPE and the technical manager of the MUX Project.
The second camera will be an update of the Wide Field Imager (WFI). It is being developed jointly by Opto Eletrônica, responsible for the optical part, and by Equatorial Sistemas, a company from São José dos Campos specialized in the manufacture of space artifacts and that was recently acquired by the French company EADS. It is a medium resolution camera, with 64 meters, and high range of cover. It works as a wide angle lens camera and has a visual field of 866 kilometers.The amount invested in the development of the two cameras amounts to R$ 90 million. “The manufacture of this equipment in Brazil represents an important technological gain. The companies involved qualify themselves in cutting edge area, which drives the development of other products”, points out Marcos Bertolino, an engineer from INPE and the technician responsible for the WFI project. [post_title] => Space conquests [post_excerpt] => Space conquests [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => space-conquests [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2013-05-23 15:31:32 [post_modified_gmt] => 2013-05-23 18:31:32 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://revistapesquisaclone.fapesp.br/2006/12/01/space-conquests/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 )  => stdClass Object ( [ID] => 23857 [post_author] => 10 [post_date] => 2006-12-01 00:00:00 [post_date_gmt] => 2006-12-01 00:00:00 [post_content] => By using biotechnological resources to alter some biochemical characteristics of the wood of the eucalyptus, researchers from the University of São Paulo (USP), in Piracicaba, are developing trees that in future are going to generate pulp and, afterwards, paper with a better quality. They have already obtained, in the laboratory, plants with genes of the Eucalyptus grandis species itself and from other plants that produce enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the hemicelluloses, a compound of the chemical group of the sugars, present between the cellulose fibers. "The more hemicelluloses there are in the wood, the better the quality of the pulp will be, as it will become more resistant in the process of making the rolls of paper, without tearing and with more whiteness. With the end consumer, a paper with these characteristics should ensure a better quality of printing and also result in a material with more resistance and adaptability for the packaging sector", explains Carlos Alberto Labate, a professor from USP's Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture and the coordinator of the project being carried out in partnership with Suzano Papel e Celulose, one of the largest producers of pulp and paper in the country, with units in the states of São Paulo and Bahia. The project was drawn up under the Partnership for Technological Innovation Program (PITE), which receives financing both from FAPESP and from the company. The group of 27 researchers, including ten from the company with technical qualification scholarships, initially managed to superexpress genes responsible for the biosynthesis of the hemicelluloses in the genetic code (DNA) of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), a model plant for this kind of experiment. Afterwards, it was the turn of specimens of the eucalyptus itself, turning them into transgenic plants. Some of the genes introduced into the two plants, found in world genome banks, came from plants like soybeans, potatoes, peas and from another model plant, Arabidopsis. Amongst the possibilities analyzed for using and expressing the various genes, two of them proved to be more interesting, the one with the name of ugdh (also found in eucalyptus) was the champion in the production of xylans, a kind of hemicellulose, in three transgenic lineages of tobacco. Another important factor in some plants was the increase in soluble lignin, a kind of vegetable polymer that works like a cement between the hemicelluloses and the cellulose fibers. More soluble lignin implies less spending on chemical compounds in the process of whitening the paper in the factory. Accordingly, the lower quantity of lignin may lead to an increase in the yield in the manufacture of white paper. Approval and patent The next step in the experiment is to test the plants in the field and to wait four or five years for the eucalyptus to be transformed into a tree and to demonstrate the viability of the experiment. For this, the researchers will have to request approval of the planting in the field by the National Biosafety Technical Commission (CTNBio). In the meantime, the researchers and the companies have deposited in Brazil, at the National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI), and, abroad, the patent for the process developed by them to obtain the metabolic route that increases the production of the hemicelluloses with the intention of improving the quality of the wood. Labate believes that the confirmation of the new technology for the productive sector is still going to take a while, and in the meantime he is finalizing some papers for publication in scientific magazines. For the company, it is a bet on the future. "Our prospect is for us to have differentiated raw material and end products also differentiated, with variability, in a few years", foresees agronomist engineer Shinitiro Oda, responsible for Suzano's plant biotechnology area. "Few companies are working with hemicellulose nowadays, the researches are more aimed at cellulose and lignin", he says. Oda notes that, besides scientific and technological development, one of the important factors in the project is the training of professionals for the area. In all, the project finalized in September this year under the auspices of the Pite and that continues with the support of Suzano has collaborated towards one master's thesis and four doctor's theses, besides several scientific initiation papers. The project also could count on four postdoctoral students. The interest for biotechnology in the area of pulp and paper can be measured by the project known as Forests, the consortium for sequencing the genome of the eucalyptus - started in 2001 and finalized in 2004 - made up of four companies from the sector: Suzano, Votorantim, Duratex and Ripasa, a company bought by Suzano and Votorantim in 2005. Labate, who also took part in this project, believes in new prospects for wood from eucalyptus. "The study of the proteins that form the wood of the eucalyptus, together with the knowledge of new genes, may result in the use of this tree as raw material in the production of alcohol (ethanol) and of biopolymers", he believes. Companies from North America and from Europe are interested in these products. To produce these biopolymers, which are biodegradable, like plastics, for example, and have a great environmental appeal, more cellulose and more hemicellulose in the raw material is needed, from the wood of any tree. Accordingly, the researches carried out at Piracicaba, initially for the production of pulp and paper, have great future prospects, even to the point of replacing or containing the production of petroleum. The Project Alteration of the quality of the wood of the eucalyptus (nº 01/11080-8); Modality Partnership for Technological Innovation Program (PITE); Coordinator Carlos Alberto Labate - USP; Investment R$ 242,216.00, US$ 925,350.62 (FAPESP) and R$ 937,141.15 (Suzano Papel e Celulose) [post_title] => Fortified eucalyptus [post_excerpt] => Partnership obtains wood that may result in better quality paper [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => fortified-eucalyptus [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2015-11-24 12:28:38 [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-11-24 14:28:38 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://revistapesquisaclone.fapesp.br/2006/12/01/fortified-eucalyptus/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 )  => stdClass Object ( [ID] => 23858 [post_author] => 6 [post_date] => 2006-12-01 00:00:00 [post_date_gmt] => 2006-12-01 00:00:00 [post_content] => [caption id="attachment_76200" align="alignright" width="299"] Brazilian tracks[/caption] They seem inoffensive, but the weeds that grow alongside or between the rails of the train can cause many problems. These invasive plants, when they are quite dry, are transformed into inflammable material, causing fires very easily. And in the periods with greater intensity of rain on the tracks, they cause the wheels to skid, preventing the train from leaving the place, besides making drainage of the permanent way more difficult. This accumulation of water also leads to the premature rotting of the sleepers - those pieces of wood that lie under the tracks. The weeds hide the sleepers, making it impossible to see whether they are rotten and hence whether it is time to replace them. Shortcomings in maintenance may cause more serious accidents, like the derailing of trains. This problem always disquieted the engineer during the 25 years in which he worked for Ferrovia Paulista S/A, the former Fepasa. Now he has a solution. "Since 1988, we have been perfecting a herbicide spraying system, to eliminate only the plants that really hinder the locomotion of the trains, without leaving the slopes devoid of plant protection (with the soil instable and silted up) in the rainy seasons", Nogueira says. The solution to the problem arose in Infrajato, a company from the city of Botucatu, São Paulo, in which he is a partner. The new system is a result of a partnership with the Faculty of Agronomic Sciences of the São Paulo State University (Unesp), in the same city, in a project that received financing from FAPESP's Small Business Innovation Research Program (PIPE). The project was coordinated by Professor Ulisses Rocha Antuniassi and uses principles of the so-called "precision farming", in which various technological resources are used to solve problems in the field. The basic structure for the system to function is made up of a locomotive and four wagons. The first of them serves as a dormitory for the technical operators of the machine. The two following wagons have, respectively, herbicide, and workshop and water. In the last wagon, there is the railroad sprayer, with a climatized cabin where the four onboard computers are that control the spraying, together with the GPS (Global Positioning System) that indicates the exact places for applying the herbicide. Before the first application, the locomotive does the journey over the route to map the whole itinerary. In the onboard computers, which coordinate the system, the application is programmed in accordance with the environmental legislation corresponding to each state through which the train is going to pass. For example, if in the state of Mato Grosso the application of herbicide is not allowed in regions with a distance of up to 100 meters from some river, the system obeys this legislation and takes a break in the prohibited regions. As the undergrowth that grows in the stone ballast trails more in comparison with the undergrowth that invades the region besides the rails, the researchers have developed a system with three spray bars. Each one of them applies the quantity of herbicide strictly necessary in the three regions of the rails. One bar distributes herbicide between the rails, and the other two do so to the left and the right of the train. With the same intention of achieving a controlled spraying, the team developed a system that only mixes the herbicide the moment it is applied. The use of techniques to control the growth of weeds where the rails of the train are is work just as old as the dissemination and use of this means of transport that goes back to the 19th century. Throughout time, the weeding was done manually and called for a lot of labor, at a very high cost. The chemical control of the growth of these plants, which came into existence in the 1950's, was a resource adopted to make this job cheaper. Nogueira remembers that in the 1970's there was an evolution in herbicides. These products ceased to have a very great residual effect, capable of contaminating the environment around the railroad line due to the high doses used. At the end of the 1980's, by means of a technological development agreement between Fepasa, Unesp and Monsanto, a handcar (a small wagon) was developed to apply herbicide. The measure brought enormous savings to the railroad. The funds necessary for performing the same work came to represent only 2% of what used to be spent with the manual weeding of the undergrowth. Together with the mobilizations in favor of the environment, which happened more intensively in the 1990's, there came to be a greater demand for control over the use of herbicides. It was around 1998 that the team coordinated by Professor Antuniassi began to look for alternatives for controlled spraying. [caption id="attachment_76201" align="alignleft" width="299"] The last wagon distributes herbicide and eliminates the undergrowth common in Brazilian railroads[/caption] "The advantage of the sprayer for the environment is that it makes a safer application", the engineer explains. The new system is capable of carrying out in one day the work that its previous prototype would take up to a month to do. "In the old distribution system, the wagon would stop to fill up. That would hinder the railroad traffic and make the job longer to do. Now the formation runs over 300 kilometers without a pause", he says. As the application is only carried out in places that are really necessary, the system saves herbicide, and in some regions there is a reduction of up to 30% of the product. The sprayer developed between 2001 and 2004 was delivered to Brasil Ferrovias by means of a two year contract and has been used in 14% of the Brazilian railroad network. With the recent purchase of this company by ALL Logística, the engineer does not yet know whether there will be a renewal of the contract that will guarantee the continuity of the service. In the meantime, Infrajato is preparing a second sprayer that it intends to offer to other railroads. For Professor Antuniassi, the new system has great potential applicability in Brazil. "There are over 30 thousand kilometers of railroad in use, mainly for freight transport." The Project Development of systems for localized application and rationalization of the technology for applying herbicides in railroads (nº 00/12124-6); Modality Small Business Innovation Research Program (PIPE); Coordinator Ulisses Rocha Antuniassi - Infrajato/Unesp; Investment R$ 88,919.00 and US$ 39,553.50 (FAPESP) [post_title] => Track-cleaner [post_excerpt] => Spraying system eliminates weeds that hinder the locomotion of trains [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => track-cleaner [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2015-10-30 14:44:28 [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-10-30 16:44:28 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://revistapesquisaclone.fapesp.br/2006/12/01/track-cleaner/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 )  => stdClass Object ( [ID] => 23859 [post_author] => 22 [post_date] => 2006-12-01 00:00:00 [post_date_gmt] => 2006-12-01 00:00:00 [post_content] => [caption id="attachment_76198" align="alignright" width="299"] Technopolo fabric: more absorption and rapid drying of transpiration, besides being antimicrobial[/caption] Nanotechnology is reaching clothes in Brazil. Two fabrics with a nanotechnological finish, intended for making workwear, have recently been put onto the market by Santista Têxtil, headquartered in São Paulo. Called Technopolo and Image, the products are the first launches of the company with the NanoComfort label, which identifies fabrics with the incorporation of nanotechnology and functional properties, such as absorption and rapid drying of transpiration, antimicrobial properties, resistance to traction and to tearing, and easy to clean and to iron. Abroad, fabrics that repel water and dirt and others with microbial properties have now been on the market for some time. "We have managed to have these results remain in the fabrics for up to 50 to 60 washes, far more than the 20 operations indicated by the technical standards", says Manoel Areias, Santista Têxtil's manager of Innovation. Details about obtaining the new materials are not divulged, on account of the exclusivity that guarantees differentiation in the market. "One of the products put into the final stage, fabric finishing, has nanometric particles", Areias says. Besides the functional properties, the new products are very soft. Image, a fabric with polyester fiber, has a texture very similar to that of the fabric made with natural wool. It is a great advantage in relation to the common polyester with the same structure of fiber, but without the incorporation of nanotechnology. When a drop is put onto the fabric, it is instantaneously absorbed because of the interaction between the nanotechnological product and the clothes. The water spreads easily and dries in fractions of a second, while in normal polyester the process takes much more time. Likewise, the fabric quickly absorbs transpiration, an interesting characteristic for the composition of workwear, such as suits, the men's and women's sets used by airlines, bus companies and banks, amongst other sectors. Technopolo, made in cotton, has the same properties and applications as Image, but is recommended for making shirts. Another advantage of the nanotechnological fabrics is their drying time when washed. They take 25 minutes to dry, compared with the 35 minutes of the conventional ones. And as they absorb water more quickly, they use less liquid in the washes. Lotus effect The researches carried out by Santista Têxtil in the nanotechnological area have also resulted in a third product, totally finalized, but that as not yet arrived on the market. It is the Lotus Effekt, a self-cleaning fabric that, in contact with water, cleans the particles of dirt present in the fabric. "We managed to put this effect onto one side of the fabric only, maintaining the soft touch", Areias says. The name is a reference to the lotus flower, a plant that is born in the mud and only opens up on reaching the surface, when its petals are completely clean. A symbol of purity in Buddhism, the flower keeps itself clean because the inclination of its petals, when receiving dewdrops that fall during the night, stay free of microorganisms and dirt. For the time being, there is not yet any launch date forecast for the product, because the company is studying which market niche is most suitable for the innovation. The investment in products with nanotechnology is the outcome of a project that started four years ago, when the company began to study and to produce modified fabrics with fibers covered with silver nanocompounds and finishes with microcapsules with active hydrating and antimicrobial material. In parallel to the researches in nanotechnology carried out at the company's Research and Development Center, in Tatuí, in the interior of São Paulo, others are being developed jointly with the São Carlos Physics Institute (IFSC) of the University of São Paulo. In June of last year, the company and the university signed a letter of intent to develop nanostructured additives intended to improve products of the textile industry. These additives range from agents that eliminate the need for ironing to antiallergic and antibacterial products. The agreement with the university provides for an investment of R$ 94.5 thousand by means of scholarships from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), besides R$ 52.5 thousand, over two years. The IFSC's Polymer Group is researching materials for additives and their interaction with the fibers of the fabrics. The company also has a partnership agreement with the ITV, which stands for he Institute of Textile Technology and Process Engineering Denkendorf, one of Germany's main textile research and development institutes. Also in 2005, the company had its Industrial Technological Development Program approved by the Ministry of Science and Technology, which makes it possible to enjoy the benefits provided for in the Law on Innovation for purchasing equipment and the contracting of masters and doctors. Founded in 1929, Santista Têxtil has as its main stockholders Camargo Corrêa and São Paulo Alpargartas and since this March has been part of the Spanish group Tavex. With the merger, the group guaranteed world leadership of the production of cloth for jeans, with a capacity for producing 150 million meters a year of these products and revenue in excess of US$ 500 million a year. Last year, the company's budget for research and development in the textile area amounted to about R$ 4.5 million, corresponding to 0.5% of the net sales of R$ 900 million. A survey carried out by the company indicated that, on the average of the last few years, 27.4% of the revenue originated from new products. The bet on nanotechnological fabrics accompanies a tendency that is growing apace, as shown by the figures disclosed by Lux Research, an American company that provides consultancy in market research in the area, during Nanotec Expo 2006, an international nanotechnology fair held in November in São Paulo. In the United States alone, according to Lux, investments in research and development of nanostructured materials and products amount to about US$ 10 billion a year. The worldwide market for products that incorporate nanotechnology had a turnover last year of US$ 32 billion, and the expectations is that it will reach US$ 2.6 trillion in 2014. The estimate is based on a survey of the projects of the 50 largest companies from various economic sectors acting worldwide. [post_title] => Functional fabrics [post_excerpt] => Santista launches products for workwear with nanotechnological properties [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => functional-fabrics [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2013-05-13 18:35:56 [post_modified_gmt] => 2013-05-13 21:35:56 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://revistapesquisaclone.fapesp.br/2006/12/01/functional-fabrics/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 ) ) [humanities] => Array (  => stdClass Object ( [ID] => 23860 [post_author] => 24 [post_date] => 2006-12-01 00:00:00 [post_date_gmt] => 2006-12-01 00:00:00 [post_content] => At the beginning of the book by Lewis Carroll, the entry of Alice into Wonderland was, essentially, a question of growing or not growing. Faced by a flask, with the direction "Drink me", the girl drinks the contents and realizes that she is "shrinking like a telescope", which would guarantee that she would pass through a small door and reach the enchanted garden. But the situation changes and she has to grow. There then appears a cake with the message "Eat me". She obeys, and grows to the point of banging her head on the ceiling of the room. She starts to cry. What lesson can Brazilian economists draw from Alice? Well, above all, that unfortunately, and however much the former minister Delfim Netto may believe in this, a cake does not make a country grow. Secondly, that decreasing and growing with such speed does not lead anyone to Wonderland without the help of a magic rabbit. "Brazilian economic growth has been stagnated for 25 years, at the mercy of the humors of the market and of possible situations of disequilibrium. It is a complex question, because there are two important groups of policies in an economy: macroeconomic policy, which deals with stability, and the policies for development, responsible for long-term economic growth. In Brazil, there has not been any significant modification in either of these groups in the long term", observes Ricardo Carneiro, an economist from Unicamp and the organizer of the recently launched study Supremacia dos Mercados [Supremacy of the Markets] (Editora Unesp/FAPESP). Far more intricate than Alice's ups and downs, the growth of the Brazilian GDP is equally erratic. "Recent growth has not escaped from the stop and go pattern of the last few decades, which becomes evident in the volatility of the GDP, but above all in the volatility of investment" or, in the words of the economist from UFRJ Carlos Lessa, former president of the BNDES, in a recent interview, "the most that the country manages is a "hen's flight": one year the rate improves a little bit, the hen jumps up, but it is not sustained, so it goes back again to the floor of the hen run". Let's go to the figures. For ten years, the Brazilian economy has been growing at a pace lower than the international average. The phenomenon is not recent. The Brazilian GDP expanded 2.3% in 2005, while in the rest of the world, according to the IMF, it expanded 4.3%. 19 times in the last 25 years, the Brazilian economy grew less than the world economy. Every hundredth counts: if Brazil grows, as the government states, 3.5% instead of 4.5% in 2006, it will mean that R$ 19.7 billion will have failed to be generated as wealth. The country is losing relative importance in the world economy and is becoming poorer in comparison with the other nations. A study that has just been published by the Institute of Applied Economic Research (Ipea), connected to the Ministry of Planning, the so-called Agenda for Economic Growth and Reduction of Poverty, the country will only manage to grow at rates of 5% a year in 2017. Even so, if a strong fiscal and tax readjustment is done, besides reducing the tax burden and increasing the level of investments, in particular in works of infrastructure to prevent bottlenecks in energy and logistics, which impede growth. "Drink me or eat me?" "The idea of stop and go can be taken in the following sense: there is a process, in general of low growth, and besides it being low, it is volatile. The empirical characterization of stop and go is precisely the low growth of the product and of investment, with high volatility. This demonstrates that we do not have a model for growth implemented in the economy, which is moved as a result both of the international scenario, more or less favorable, and of the handling of the macroeconomic policy on interest and exchange rates", Carneiro analyzes. Although the low Brazilian development is particularly worrying, there is, according to the study Latin America and the Caribbean: forecasts for 2006-2007, by Cepal, "a relative homogeneity in the growth rates in 2006 of the Latin American countries, between 3 and 6%, with the exception of Argentina and Venezuela, which will grow at rates higher that 6%". The success on the River Plate may be a key to understanding our "unsuccess". "The Argentinean example is emblematic. Kirchner, more conservative than Lula, was obliged to promote changes, because the picture reached breaking point. There may possibly be a reversal in Brazil leading to a breaking point. A deepening of the scenario may open the field for the current model to be buried, as was the case in Argentina", Carneiro reckons. What model? Between the 1930's and the 1970's, Brazil and other countries of Latin America grew at extraordinarily high rates. The developmentalist, or national-developmentalist, model took advantage of the weakening of the center to formulate national strategies for development that implied the protection of the nascent national industry and forced promotion by means of the State. "The nation was capable of using the State as an instrument for defining and implementing a national strategy for development. It was not a question of replacing the market by the State, but of strengthening the latter, for it to manage to create conditions for companies to be able to invest, for businessmen to be able to innovate", observes Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira in his most recent article, "The New Developmentism". According to him, from the 1980, there was the so-called "foreign debt crisis", which induces a new political bias in the economy. With the rise in American interest rates, Brazil saw itself obliged to face up to the drying up of the external sources of financing and put as priorities the containment of imports and the increase of exports. The international context was not favorable and these actions failed, bringing the so-called "lost decade". This frustration, in the 1990's, for the neoliberal strategy on stabilization and development to win over Brazil, whether under the name of the Washington Consensus, or as "conventional orthodoxy". "Outside the liberal model for managing the economy, nothing seemed possible or viable. The postulates are there: economic stability with the control of inflation is a necessary and sufficient condition for growth, the opening up to abroad, independently of the timing or extent, is always virtuous, the intervention of the State is most times negative and must be minimized, restricting itself to the creation of a juridical-institutional environment for the operation of the market forces", observes economist Luiz Gonzaga Belluzzo in his Blockages to growth. "The incapacity of this policy for promoting sustained growth is undisguisable. Despite this, the proposals for change have been disqualified." With inflation overturned, it used to be believed that the new strategy would start a wave of intense productive modernization, in particular in industry. The fittest companies would survive the challenge of competitiveness, and corporate interests, seen as responsible for stagnation, would be dismantled. Brazil could count on the generous support of foreign capital, with financial and technological injections coming from the globalized economy. "It was the end of developmentism and the acceptance that the nation-states had lost relevance. The free markets, including the financial ones, would take care of promoting the economic development of everyone", writes Bresser-Pereira. With one fundamental and symptomatic detail. "While the Latin American countries were losing control over the foreign exchange rate, through the opening up of financial accounts, and saw their rates appreciate by accepting the strategy of growth with foreign savings, proposed by Washington, the Asian countries maintained their surpluses and the control of their foreign exchange rates." Moreover, while the Latin American countries accepted indiscriminately the liberalizing reforms, carrying out, Bresser notes, "irresponsible privatizations of monopolist services and opening up their capital account", the Asians were more prudent. Today, the economists envy the growth of the GDP of nations like Korea and China. "It was fundamental to promote competitiveness through market mechanisms. The a priori choice of strategic sectors and companies became anathema. In the place of sectorial policies, horizontal policies that simultaneously stimulated all the sectors to produce in conditions of price and quality of the world market", observe Mariano Laplane and Fernando Sarti, both from Unicamp, in their study Prometheus Bound, part of The Supremacy of the Markets. "Bound, like Prometheus, in Aeschylus's play, by the very incapacity to resume industrial development, Brazil wasted, and is wasting, available opportunities in a favorable international context", they evaluate. To intensify things, the fiscal crisis of the 1980's, which was a byproduct of the external crisis, made, in the imagination of the citizen, the distortion associate itself directly with the inefficiency of the State, transformed into a villain. "The local elites stop thinking with their own heads, they accept advice and pressures coming from the north, and, without a national strategy for development, the countries see their development staunch. It was a negative proposal, which supposed the possibility of the markets coordinating everything automatically and the State ceasing to carry out the economic role that it has always had in the developed countries: complementing the coordination of the market to promote development and equity", notes Bresser-Pereira. The neoliberal result was no better than the "lost decade". Failure "If the success of any strategy for development must be a reduction in the distance that separates us from other developing countries, which have taken advantage of the opportunities, the neoliberal strategy must be evaluated as a resounding failure", Laplane and Sarti observe. Since the end of the 1980's, Brazilian companies have reorientated their growth towards the export market, making localized defensive investments (rationalization and modernization), to the detriment of investments in expansion or installation of new productive units. The adjustment of the 1990's worsened the picture. Companies reacted to the opening up to abroad by increasing specialization and rationalization, with a strong reduction in employment. Everything happened with low investment and by the search for foreign partners, in an intense process of denationalization. "Producers stayed restricted to the previous advances made abroad and there were no domestic innovative efforts. It was the adoption of incorporated technology, which led to the increase in imports, seen as a cheaper and shorter route to have access to foreign innovations and to gain competitiveness", the researchers observe. The option was for "drink me", which led, they note, to a "regressive specialization" of Brazilian industrial production and, as a consequence, industrial expansion only took place with an increase in the demand for hard currency. The authors reject the threadbare thesis of the "exogenous" factors (crises in Mexico, Asia, Russia etc.) as attenuating factors to explain the failure of the model. "The unsatisfactory results were a consequence of the productive transformations themselves that occurred, independently of the external shocks", they warn. After all, however much we exported, we would import far more. The so-called obsession for inflationary stability, the hallmark of the neoliberal model, Bresser and Carneiro observe, became the central objective of the macroeconomic policy, achieved by means of foreign exchange, monetary and fiscal management. "The much praised stability of prices, at the cost of a trifling growth, by basing itself at a first moment on the overuse of the exchange rate anchor, and at a second moment, on a precarious policy of inflation targets, demanding high real interest rates, ended up by producing macroeconomic instability by expanding the domestic public debt and driving a new cycle of external indebtedness, in part by the attraction of short-term foreign capital", in Belluzzo's evaluation. The foreign money was arriving, but it stayed little time in Brazil. China While this happened, in Asia, countries like China were investing in a program of reforms that combined an aggressive export strategy, attracting foreign direct investments in the liberated zones, and all this regulated with strong intervention of the State. Accordingly, the Chinese, with growing competitiveness (although one may now fear a brake on this 10% annual growth, seen as unsustainable by economists), are becoming the largest receivers of American direct investment, at the same time gaining increasing participation in the market of the United States. The two-way route not adopted by Brazil (which was only concerned with the entry of foreign capital) was fatal to our model for growth. Also, the "concentrated deconcentration" of the world GDP benefited China and the developing Asians. We took another road and we continue on it. "Faced by a strong expansion in liquidity and in international trade, in 2003, the option chosen was to widen the immediate gains by means of the appreciation of the local currency. If this kept the inflation rates low and allowed consumption abroad, it sacrificed the increase in the international reserves obtained with the improvement in the exports, and a better competitiveness of the exports of manufactured goods", Belluzzo notes. The researcher puts as an attenuating factor, at a first moment, the desire to construct a sphere of credibility for the current government. "The inflexibility of the Brazilian regime when faced by the characteristic of price formation has implied an abusive use of the interest rate and sacrificing the growth of the product and of employment to achieve the targets", he warns. For Carneiro, the situation is even more precarious. "The maintenance of past policies has generated an external vulnerability. The gains came from the exports, and so the growth did not take place because of a specific policy practiced by the government. On the contrary, the appreciation of the real goes against the current of the increase in exports, and we will soon arrive at a dilemma to sustain this growth, and it also stimulates imports." So growth can be 4% in one year, and in another, nothing. "The government has not outlined a long-term horizon for development. The State needs to act more decisively, signpost which the priority sectors are, create credit, tariff, and tax incentives. It also has to maintain policies for social development. If there is no policy for accelerated growth, the social policy, individually, does not sustain itself". Nor do the high interest rates help. "Interest rates on a high level are a powerful discouragement for growth. You just have to highlight the notion of opportunity cost that is present in the rate. In the Brazilian case, high interest rates are offered, on securities with high liquidity and low risk, which offer an alternative to productive investment', in Belluzzo's analysis. Furthermore, the country's infrastructure has to be expanded. "It will be difficult for the expansion of investments to be carried out without a decisive participation of the public sector, which is contradictory to the current magnitude of the primary balance." Bresser-Pereira proposes the adoption of the new developmentism, which rejects the idea that countries with medium development need external savings to grow, as the liberal orthodoxy preaches. "History teaches us that countries develop almost exclusively with internal resources. The Asians have resorted very parsimoniously to external savings, in general, growing with a surplus in current account." The new developmentism, he continues, believes in the management of the foreign exchange rate, which implies a moderate interest rate, which makes it possible to buy reserves when the capital inflows are very high. "To ensure the continuity of growth, in particular the resumption of growth, the developmentist State would have to be contrasted with the regulatory State. Its central mission would be to make it viable to increase the rate of investment, but not necessarily nor as a priority by means of minimizing the jurisdictional risk (as in the case of the Law on Bankruptcies, the Agencies, or the independence of the Central Bank)", Belluzzo and Carneiro ponder. 'The crucial role of the State would be the creation of mechanisms of coordination and support affording private investment less insecurity as to the long-term course of the economy. Overcoming this constraint is one more challenge for overcoming the unbearable lightness of growth." Will it be possible? For Laplane and Sarti, if "the wasting of opportunities for growth is a result of the anti-growth bias of the macroeconomic policy and of the absence of an industrial strategy of the FHC era, the Lula government has not been capable of reversing this picture." Or, according to economist Eduardo Gianetti, from Ibmec, 'it is not by dint of monetary and foreign exchange policy that we will resume sustained growth; we are going to have to meddle with structural things that have up to now not been an object of the government's attention". "I will not do any magic with the economy", claimed the recently elected president. We will certainly not reach Wonderland with enchanted potions or cakes. "Even with the gale in favor, only a black magic symposium will be capable of producing a sustained growth of 5% a year with the key prices of the economy, the foreign exchange and interest rates, completely out of place", wrote Belluzzo in the Carta Capital magazine. Unfortunately, there are more mad hatters than magic rabbits in our economy. [post_title] => Eat me or drink me? [post_excerpt] => The dilemmas of Brazilian economic growth are older and complex [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => eat-me-or-drink-me [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-01-22 12:50:31 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-01-22 14:50:31 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://revistapesquisaclone.fapesp.br/2006/12/01/eat-me-or-drink-me/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 )  => stdClass Object ( [ID] => 23861 [post_author] => 24 [post_date] => 2006-12-01 00:00:00 [post_date_gmt] => 2006-12-01 00:00:00 [post_content] => The aeroplane, in the air, is the world's safest means of transport. On land, that is not always true. Airplanes hitting the two towers led the USA to war. In Brazil, another conflict, more veiled, but not for that reason less bellicose, is being waged in the airports. There are still no shots, just the casualties of Gol's Boeing, the fall of which, strangely, revealed that the antagonism between civilians and the military remains in post-democratization Brazil. It was after the accident with flight 1907 that the flight controllers adopted a work to rule, which, by law, is restricted to civilians, since the military is prohibited from striking (and only one fourth of these professionals do not come from the barracks). The commander of the Air Force accused the Ministry of Defense of "encouraging anarchy and prompting a grave precedent" by negotiating with the "strikers" to put an end to the chaos in the airports. The civilian minister Waldir Pires did not accept defeat and went so far as to propose the demilitarization of the controllers, causing more wrath amongst the military. Their fear is lest the breach of hierarchy in the control of flights ends up placing the whole military organization in checkmate, because of the intervention of the Defense Ministry. "The existence of this Ministry is an important basic indicator of the civilian-military relations in a country. This structure, according to some, is the solution to the classic dilemma of who will guard the guardians?. If the correct reply is that it is the democratically elected civilians that guard the guardians, then a Ministry of Defense is the fundamental vehicle for this control", observes Luís Alexandre Fucille, the author of Democracy and the military question: the creation of the Ministry of Defense in Brazil, a doctoral thesis defended at Unicamp in February, under the supervision of Eliézer Rizzo de Oliveira. "Democracy can only work when those who have arms obey those who do not have them", in his analysis. For the researcher, there is still a lack of content in this government body, created in 1999 during the FHC government, and those who think that the "threat" to military autonomy is a thing of the past are mistaken. "Full civilian control is a necessary, albeit not sufficient, condition for the consolidation and deepening of the Brazilian democratic regime", the researcher reckons. The biggest disaster of Brazilian aviation may be exposing one of the greatest mistakes of post-dictatorship Brazil: that the Armed Forces were miraculously "brought into line". "Such a deep-rooted and conservative mentality as the military mentality is not transmuted by a simple "changing of the guard"." The brigadier's annoyance is not an exception, but proves to be almost a rule. Since the birth of the ministry, there has been no holder of the post of president of the Republic unscathed by military disrespect, from FHC, execrated by the Armed Forces, to Lula, whose minister, the diplomat José Viegas, fell after being affronted by the commander of the Army. The soldier, in an official note, after the publication in the press of photos that supposed showed journalist Vladimir Herzog submitted to tortures, reaffirmed the military convictions about the years of lead. "Instead of dismissing the general, Lula dealt with him with kid gloves and considered the incident as the fruit of the political ineptness of Viegas", recalls political scientist Jorge Zaverucha, from the Federal University of Pernambuco, in his article The Fragility of the Brazilian Ministry of Defense. Fragility "Afraid of exercising his authority, Lula left himself fragile himself. The Armed Forces continue to act autonomously and frequently pass over the authority of the Minister of Defense, denting the authority of the President of the Republic and in clear insubordination to the chain of political and military command", in his analysis. For Zaverucha, the ministry, with its limited prerogatives, reflects the unstable equilibrium in the country's civilian-military relations. "The institutional arrangement that created the ministry makes its occupant much more a sort of institutional go-between of the Armed Forces before the President than a representative of the government for the barracks. Viegas's departure left that crystal-clear. "The temporary appointment of Vice-President José Alencar, replacing Viegas, gave some breathing space to the military, which felt itself gaining prestige with the new "patron". The love affair was not to last long: the appointment of Waldir Pires, exiled during the dictatorship, has been difficult to swallow by the Armed Forces. The reasons go back to the Paraguayan War, when the Forces observed the need for having new techniques available, in order to achieve greater efficiency in their performance. "It was then that the relationship existing between the military organization and the degree of economic development of a country with such incipient industrial foundations was perceived. The corporation came to take on a progressive political influence, to the extent that it had a more critical notion of its role, as the most "national" of the institutions, without the same consideration and concern occurring on the part of the civilians", Fucille reasons. The military prominence throughout our independent history strikes the eye, but, the researcher observes, that did not generate an analytical consideration of the phenomenon. "There was an acceptance of the idea of the military question as a problem that would not call for greater considerations by society in the post-authoritarian context." The researcher also observes that the end of the military/authoritarian cycle occurred less from the pressures of the civil society than from a distensive policy drawn up by the Forces. The Brazilian military left power with reasonable autonomy and a high degree of institutional cohesion, besides having maintained prerogatives that make a relevant political role possible, albeit on different lines. "There has been a reduced but ascendant autonomy, nevertheless no less significant in relation to civilian power. The Forces still keep complete independence in defining how to employee their budget", reckons Suzeley Mathias, a researcher from Unesp's Defense Studies Group and the author of the book Militarization of Bureaucracy (Unesp/FAPESP). Continuity was the main hallmark of the passing from the military government to the first civilian government. With an aggravating factor: the employment of the military in guaranteeing "law and order" was maintained. "Employing the Forces to defend the law means that it can be used for police duties, like repressing trafficking. In guaranteeing order, on the other hand, space is opened up for the military to be able to be called to repress strikes or social movements", Fucille notes. That was a dangerous precedent, in particular with the end of the Cold War, during the Collor government, which led the military institutions to an "identity crisis". What do the Forces serve for? It was an uncomfortable question, but frequently posed in Brazil. After Operation Rio, a series of actions to fight Rio de Janeiro drug traffic carried out between 1994 and 1995, this crisis was overcome. "It was a turning point. With FHC, the military circles resolved the impasse through the dangerous expedient of resorting to the Armed Forces to resolve conflicts, above all the social ones, in overcoming the obstacles on the way to the structural reforms set forth by the neoliberal agenda", the researcher observes. According to Fucille, the creation of the ministry took place in the wake of globalization. "What was being sought was more a modernization and a rationalization of the defense system along the lines of a program for reforming the State that wanted to implode the fundamental pillars that were still left of the Vargas era, which was the direct contact of the military apparatus with the decision-taking levels of power, tolerated within the style of the bureaucratic State, but inadequate in the institution of a managerial State." You just have to remember that FHC designated the minister-chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces to outline the new brief, making it clear, Zaverucha notes, that "it would have a military perception, although it was created as a level of civilian power". During the first presidential mandate, the project did not advance, and, finally, Cardoso saw himself obliged to create the ministry by hook or by crook, in the wake of the government campaign to guarantee a permanent seat for Brazil on the Security Council of the UN. "Throughout the whole process of creating the ministry, the participation of civilians in general (both from the political class and from the civil society) was trifling, a neglect, incidentally, that unfortunately remains to this date", he says. "The Legislative Branch, in particular, has characterized itself in Brazil for not acting very prominently as far as defense issues are concerned, merely saying yes or no to the budgetary demands of the Forces, instead of asking why and what for, as befitted it, which only reinforces the chronic Brazilian military autonomy, pointing to future (and present) problems on the political plane, to the extent that it points to a hypertrophy of the Executive Branch." The creation of the Ministry of Defense is symptomatic of this, since it was born of a Provisional Measure and with a timid participation of Congress. Or, in the words of Walter Bräuer, then Minister of the Air Force: "The Ministry of Defense did not come from us, nor from the people. It came from a government determination". In spite of the criticisms, the government accepted the plea of the military for the American defense model, in which the position of the occupant is strengthened, to be left aside, under the allegation of "our having peculiarities". The president of the Air Force Club, in 1999, Ércio Braga, made then clear: "One cannot talk about the legality of a government which, by its actions, becomes illegitimate, given that the commitment of the military is to the nation, and not to the government". There were those at the same meeting who declared, like Deputy Jair Bolsonaro, that: "He (FHC), for me, should have been shot". All this, notwithstanding the fact that Cardoso, from a military family, had done the whole process with absolute zeal, without being concerned about time. "Each individual Force carries out its activities without being linked to the others. One cannot perceive an integrated project tying up the desired or possible bellicose capacity with the pertinent budgetary resources. We lack a 'white paper for defense', indicating what the country's defense policy is, what the missions of the Forces are", Zaverucha believes. "It is imperative for the Ministry of Defense to fulfill the function of interlocutor between the Forces and society, for society to be able to take an interest and have an influence on a decisive theme for the destiny of the country, which is the definition of the role of the military", says Eliézer Rizzo de Oliveira, a researcher from the Strategic Studies Nucleus at Unicamp. "The ministry is adequate for the country. What it lacks is content", he notes. For the researcher, the universities have to be stimulated to an interchange with the Forces for the production of knowledge about national defense. A big step was taken by Unicamp, which implanted the Development of Technology for the Ministry of Defense Laboratory, during the term of office of Rector Carlos Henrique de Brito Cruz. These studies may help to prevent dangerous muddles, such as the one made by deputies and senators, who, Rizzo observes, mix up the concepts of national security with national defense. "President Lula has to resist the pressures for the transformation of the Forces into police auxiliaries or for using them to recover highways instead of the contractors, ignoring the outdated state of the military machinery." Nor is the answer to exchange the uniform for the suit. "The Ministry of Defense, with limited duties, reflects the unstable equilibrium in civilian-military relations", warns Zaverucha. The 154 victims of Gol flight 1907 are enough. Democracy cannot be one more casualty in this quarrel, as recent as it is old. [post_title] => Who will guard the guardians? [post_excerpt] => Crisis at the airports exposes the fragilities of the Ministry of Defense [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => who-will-guard-the-guardians [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-01-22 12:51:29 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-01-22 14:51:29 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://revistapesquisaclone.fapesp.br/2006/12/01/who-will-guard-the-guardians/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 )  => stdClass Object ( [ID] => 23862 [post_author] => 204 [post_date] => 2006-12-01 00:00:00 [post_date_gmt] => 2006-12-01 00:00:00 [post_content] => Since she was very small, Analívia Cordeiro, from São Paulo, was used to sitting at the table with friends of her father, the plastic artist Waldemar Cordeiro (1925-1973). Amongst them, names like Pierre Boulez (1925) and Federico Fellini (1920-1993). The first passion for art, though, manifested itself in her for dancing. At the age of 11, she was already a ballet dancer. At the same time that she was studying architecture at FAU-USP, she became a choreographer, dancer and corporeal researcher. After graduating in Brazil by the Laban method - with Maria Duschenes - she became an international pioneer in computer-dance and in video art in the country, with experiments carried out in 1973. Subsequently, she studied modern American dance at the studios of Alvin Nikolais and Merce Cunningham (New York), between 1977 and 1979, and graduated in eutony in 2002. In 1975, with assistance from Fapesp, Analívia filmed in Super-8 the Kuarup ritual ceremony in the Kamayurá tribe, in the Xingu National Park. She has had her works presented at important international displays all over the world in the last 30 years. Indefatigable, she has created various videos, multimedia spectacles and a movement notation software, published in the video/book Nota-Anna - An electronic notation of the movements of the human body based on the Laban method (published by Annablume). She also produced the Waldemar Cordeiro CD-ROM (2001) and the duCorpo DVD in versions in Portuguese, English and Spanish. She has also worked as a modern dance teacher of the Laban method and of eutony in children?s schools, dance schools and faculties of psychology (USP) and fashion (Santa Marcelina). Finally, she took a master's degree in multimedia at Unicamp. All that Analívia had lived, learnt and accumulated in experience and knowledge, she directed towards producing her doctoral thesis in communication Cyber-Harmony: a dialog between corporeal awareness and the electronic media, which she defended at PUC-SP, in 2004, under the supervision of Arlindo Machado. The thesis was made up of four complementary items: the websites www.ducorpo.com.br and www.notaanna.com.br, the duCorpo DVD, and the theory in writing. To absorb its content, the artist convinced the examining bench of the need to carry out previously both a reading of the texts in writing and in images, and a corporeal practice, for the research to be better understood. And all the participants kindly acceded. What may appear merely a method for corporeal relaxation and conditioning, applicable in any fitness center or in one of those bookstore manuals is a laborious and complex process of self-awareness and of the discoveries arising from stimulating the respect for the organicity intrinsic to the movements of the body. A work that resulted from three decades of studies, which includes a way developed by the author to describe the movement of the body, called Nota-Anna. Its main characteristic is to visualize the trail of movement to show "the essence of its emotional expression in nuances". The program was written in Java language and can be used in any computer. At its current stage, it is an instrument that makes possible the recording and visualization of movement in a direct and natural way. With its evolution, by the incorporation of computer vision and artificial intelligence techniques, Nota-Anna has a chance of becoming, as well, a tool for analyzing and conceiving movement. "Who knows, even coming to be widely used by all those who cultivate this art", observed Luiz Velho, an associate researcher from the Pure and Applied Mathematics Institute. The author explains that the doctoral project was born from the observation that nowadays millions of people are affected on a daily basis by the continuous use of electronic instruments, which interferes with human relations. Hence the need for a reflection about it. These instruments, she goes on, dictate physical and emotional behaviors that mold the body, transform themselves into day to day habits and can cause suffering and physical pain (like the carpal tunnel syndrome, for example). The research observes that, if it is taken into account that the body is a structure of bones covered by skin and various kinds of tissues, it is possible to affirm that its characteristics are altered with their daily use. "The tissues, despite naturally resisting mechanical efforts of folding, twisting, tearing, compressing, run the risk of being definitively impaired in their structure and functioning, if drawn on in excess, by repetitive efforts." As therapies for seeking an equilibrium on the plane of corporeal movement, there is everything from medical treatments to mystical or religious rituals. "There are still not any proposals, though, for a new and healthy activity of the user of the new technologies in their own medium of action. That is why I consider this thesis useful, necessary and significant", she explains. As a tool, the ballerina created and produced duCorpo, whose DVD was chosen as the electronic medium for solving the problems caused by this medium itself. She suggests corporeal procedures integrated with electronic language, an attitude that may make possible a complete experience of the organism, including physical, mental, sensorial and emotional aspects of a creative and involving nature. The theoretical-practical tools are endobiophilia, eutony, the Feldenkrais and Laban methods, in the field of corporeal awareness; and, in new technology, the Nota-Anna application for the writing, reading and learning of movement. "I believe that, within this theme, verbal discourse is insufficient and incomplete, seeing that, in the non-verbal part, the language of behavior is frequently more important than what is said." Unity Her thesis was made up of two complementary parts: the theoretical (verbal) and the practical (non-verbal), in such a way as to make up a complete unity. Analívia explains that, for the users, the electronic instruments can be considered as semantic filters or intermediaries in their contact with reality. "Accordingly, I perceive that a proposal to surpass these limits must be within the universe contained in its own action, because it is very difficult for a person to stop using them to look for an activity in another universe, other than in extreme and exceptional cases, like a problem with health. But why not prevent and take care of the body before it falls ill?" This attitude, the author writes, opens up space for the emergence of new contents in the user-electronic instruments interaction. "This traditional conception of communion between people is very true, just as the considerations about the current use of technology are. There is evidence, though, that technology is entering the sphere of the affective, personal and intimate, in a positive and constructive way." The duCorpo DVD intends to be a resource in this direction. Amongst other objectives, it tries to balance the day-to-day of the user with the integration of two kinds of activity: interaction with technology and procedures for introspection, which could make possible a more integrated detection of the world. Or, at least, one richer in mental, sensorial and emotional experiences. "I believe that the new generation, which, on the one hand, knows, albeit in a superficial way, practices of meditation or "oriental philosophy", and, on the other hand, lives so intimately with videogames, computers, virtual reality etc., would not have any difficulty in uniting these two practices, provided that it is done under proper guidance." On switching on the DVD, the user is stimulated to enter into a new world of his body and of his mind. Analívia proposes a reduction in the areas of tension of the body, through relaxation based on the reduction of the tonus of the tense areas, which leads to a postural realignment. Next, three minutes are given to sleep and to carry out a neurological rearrangement. In a second stage, carrying out a general tonification of the body using active movements, such as pushing against the floor or something that makes it possible to get up little by little until standing up, in such a way as to expand the strength and flexibility of the body. Afterwards, laughing and enjoying oneself, for the person to have total freedom to discover what he wants to do. Lastly, stopping to think and to feel what has happened after the activities. You must exercise what you want to. This attitude, the ballerina claims, may come to make up a new form of universal culture, as one more step in the history of human affectivity and self-awareness. A posture that is in its infancy today in other spheres of the new technology. Outside the limits of the academic world, the thesis intends to address itself as well to children, pre-adolescents and adolescents, since the Internet is changing the nature of childhood, because it opens up the world for everybody. From statements taken by her or researched, Analívia observes that the fundamental role of technology in the life of the youngsters is unquestionable. From the technical point of view, a marked daily habit in the life of these youngsters is not to move their bodies frequently. For hours, every day, they play, research, flirt or work in front of a monitor, where the eyes follow movements of a toy (or car, or information etc.) on the screen, and the fingers move keys to activate this virtual world. "For all the age groups, we found that, with the virtual culture, physical mobility has lost strength in favor of the virtual mobility of information. This tendency originated in post-modernity and with the advent of new urban characteristics." Analívia observes that the urban environment, added to the apparatuses of the new technology, constantly stimulates vision to the detriment of physical activity and of other senses of the body. "duCorpo is a corporeal practice of a pedagogical nature, amongst others. Its objective in this context is broad, but I would like to emphasize our country specifically." In Brazil, she says, pedagogical plans are formulated at various levels of society, from broad and disseminated perspectives. With the new technologies, what is wanted is the generation of important innovations in the educational process, "that may make it possible for education to attend more clearly to the aspirations and needs of human societies, where knowledge and the capacity for learning and creating solutions are essential aspects for development and well-being". In her basic reasons, the author concludes that there are two basic issues. First, technological development, which is going to create increasingly cheaper and more sophisticated products, with an expansion of the access by a larger portion of the population. Next, the demand for education, development, training, qualification, which is already great and is going to continue to grow. In this context, her program develops an educative and constructive function. "Another objective is leisure, opening up the possibility of acting in a purely playful, free and light way with an electronic apparatus; abandoning, for however short a time, the attitude of obstinate conquest, to take up an attitude of pleasure and internal self-confidence, allowing our desires, needs and curiosities to flow with simplicity, independent of the physical and mental obligations imposed." In this quest for quality of life in the digital era, with the proposal of a dialog between body, mind and computer, Analívia wants to democratize to the maximum her program, without being worried about transforming her studies into a lucrative business. "Behind all this, there is a profound knowledge, an experience of life, which made it possible to draw up a painstaking work, with scientific elaboration, that makes the dance a means of making people's lives better. The challenge lies in awakening in the person the willingness to get the DVD and practice." [post_title] => Dance of the machine, body and mind [post_excerpt] => Doctoral thesis with DVD creates concept on quality of life in the virtual era [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => dance-of-the-machine-body-and-mind [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2015-02-09 18:25:43 [post_modified_gmt] => 2015-02-09 20:25:43 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://revistapesquisaclone.fapesp.br/2006/12/01/dance-of-the-machine-body-and-mind/ [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 ) ) ) [categories] => Array ( [covid-19-en] => WP_Term Object ( [term_id] => 3674 [name] => COVID-19 [slug] => covid-19-en [term_group] => 0 [term_taxonomy_id] => 3676 [taxonomy] => category [description] => [parent] => 157 [count] => 66 [filter] => raw [term_order] => 0 [cat_ID] => 3674 [category_count] => 66 [category_description] => [cat_name] => COVID-19 [category_nicename] => covid-19-en [category_parent] => 157 ) [butantan-120-years] => WP_Term Object ( [term_id] => 3732 [name] => Butantan – 120 years [slug] => butantan-120-years [term_group] => 0 [term_taxonomy_id] => 3734 [taxonomy] => category [description] => [parent] => 157 [count] => 3 [filter] => raw [term_order] => 0 [cat_ID] => 3732 [category_count] => 3 [category_description] => [cat_name] => Butantan – 120 years [category_nicename] => butantan-120-years [category_parent] => 157 ) [pesquisa-fapesp-20-years] => WP_Term Object ( [term_id] => 2821 [name] => Pesquisa Fapesp 20 Years [slug] => pesquisa-fapesp-20-years [term_group] => 0 [term_taxonomy_id] => 2823 [taxonomy] => category [description] => [parent] => 157 [count] => 12 [filter] => raw [term_order] => 0 [cat_ID] => 2821 [category_count] => 12 [category_description] => [cat_name] => Pesquisa Fapesp 20 Years [category_nicename] => pesquisa-fapesp-20-years [category_parent] => 157 ) [ufrj-100-years] => WP_Term Object ( [term_id] => 3691 [name] => UFRJ – 100 Years [slug] => ufrj-100-years [term_group] => 0 [term_taxonomy_id] => 3693 [taxonomy] => category [description] => [parent] => 157 [count] => 9 [filter] => raw [term_order] => 0 [cat_ID] => 3691 [category_count] => 9 [category_description] => [cat_name] => UFRJ – 100 Years [category_nicename] => ufrj-100-years [category_parent] => 157 ) [policies-st-en] => WP_Term Object ( [term_id] => 166 [name] => S&T Policy [slug] => policies-st-en [term_group] => 0 [term_taxonomy_id] => 167 [taxonomy] => category [description] => [parent] => 157 [count] => 1126 [filter] => raw [term_order] => 21 [cat_ID] => 166 [category_count] => 1126 [category_description] => [cat_name] => S&T Policy [category_nicename] => policies-st-en [category_parent] => 157 ) [science] => WP_Term Object ( [term_id] => 159 [name] => Science [slug] => science [term_group] => 0 [term_taxonomy_id] => 160 [taxonomy] => category [description] => [parent] => 157 [count] => 1912 [filter] => raw [term_order] => 18 [cat_ID] => 159 [category_count] => 1912 [category_description] => [cat_name] => Science [category_nicename] => science [category_parent] => 157 ) [technology] => WP_Term Object ( [term_id] => 169 [name] => Technology [slug] => technology [term_group] => 0 [term_taxonomy_id] => 170 [taxonomy] => category [description] => [parent] => 157 [count] => 1060 [filter] => raw [term_order] => 23 [cat_ID] => 169 [category_count] => 1060 [category_description] => [cat_name] => Technology [category_nicename] => technology [category_parent] => 157 ) [humanities] => WP_Term Object ( [term_id] => 165 [name] => Humanities [slug] => humanities [term_group] => 0 [term_taxonomy_id] => 166 [taxonomy] => category [description] => [parent] => 157 [count] => 801 [filter] => raw [term_order] => 20 [cat_ID] => 165 [category_count] => 801 [category_description] => [cat_name] => Humanities [category_nicename] => humanities [category_parent] => 157 ) ) ) -->
A warmer Brazil
The first scenarios using regional climate models point towards more severe droughts and floods under temperatures that will be higher and humidity that will be lower, with impacts upon human health and food productionBy Carlos Fioravanti
The ethanol race
FAPESP and Oxiteno invite researchers to look for solutions that will reduce alcohol costs
A north star for the state of Amazonas
In only four years, the State sets up a state wide system of science and technologyBy Fabrício Marques
Behind the smoke screen
A study shows how to identify and treat high risk smokersBy Carlos Fioravanti
The trails of coke
A compound inhibits the effect of cocaine and helps to elucidate its action on the brainBy Ricardo Zorzetto
Secrets of Nobility
Biologists begin to understand how the genes act in order to differentiate queen bees from workersBy Maria Guimarães
Mammals to the surface
Biologists find an average of eight new species of mammals a year in South AmericaBy Maria Guimarães
Bacteria contend with plants to control the pores of the leavesBy Maria Guimarães
Electronic voting machines with a digital identifier start being used in the 2008 municipal electionsBy Dinorah Ereno
System developed by Griaule is amongst the best in the world
Uniespaço project develops technological innovations for rocket and satellite projectsBy Yuri Vasconcelos
Partnership between USP and Suzano obtains wood that may result in better quality paperBy Marcos de Oliveira
Santista launches products for workwear with nanotechnological propertiesBy Dinorah Ereno
Eat me or drink me?
The dilemmas of Brazilian economic growth are far older and more complex than our vain philosophy supposesBy Carlos Haag
Who will guard the guardians?
Crisis at the airports puts into the air the fragilities of the Ministry of DefenseBy Carlos Haag