It has been nearly three years since the last English edition of Pesquisa FAPESP. The pandemic and consequent suspension of face-to-face activities interrupted our periodic publication of articles originally published in Portuguese, although the English version of our website has been kept up to date (revistapesquisa.fapesp.br/en). Now, we are happy to return with a new printed English issue, which includes a selection of texts from January to June 2022.
In 2021, the official number of cattle in Brazil reached 224.6 million, greater than the human population. Livestock farming is a major economic sector in the country, but it also has significant downsides, such as the fact that it is a huge source of methane emissions, contributing to global warming. Methane represents 19% of Brazil’s total greenhouse gas emissions. With more head of cattle than any other country in the world, Brazil has a responsibility to develop and implement technologies that allow the sector to reduce carbon emissions and its impact on the planet’s climate. This issue’s cover story describes some of the initiatives currently being used to reduce livestock emissions, such as the integration of cattle breeding with agricultural cultivation and forestry.
The Tupi language is used by various peoples across South America. The population has dispersed across the subcontinent in a territorial movement that started almost 3,000 years ago. Analysis of current Tupi genetics suggest that this dispersion was accompanied by a population explosion, which may have reached as many as 5 million individuals. The results offer an insight into the expansion of the Tupi peoples. When compared with data on ethnic groups that speak other languages, contradict the widely held belief that the physical barrier imposed by the Andes prevented genetic mixing between populations from either side.
In May 2022, the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) celebrated its 60th anniversary. Established in the São Paulo State Constitution of 1947, the foundation was created in October 1960 and began operating a year and a half later. The pioneering institution is the largest state-level science and research agency in Brazil, serving as a national and international benchmark.
It operates on several related fronts simultaneously, one of which is to communicate scientific knowledge to society. To achieve the objective of promoting and supporting the publication of research results, FAPESP created a virtual library (bv.fapesp.br) that contains the abstracts of every research grant funded by FAPESP throughout its history. The foundation’s vision of the importance of communication also led to the creation of Pesquisa FAPESP in the 1990s. As a result of their impact and recognition, several of FAPESP’s initiatives have served as inspiration for other agencies. The international reach of Brazilian science, something the agency has actively promoted in recent years, is presented in a report on foreign researchers who have come to Brazil for postdoctoral fellowships.Republish